Sign in

What Works When for Whom?

Advancing therapy change process research

Image: Drew Leavy (CC License)

Mental illnesses, like depression and anxiety, are among the leading causes of the global burden of disease. E-mental health (EMH) interventions, such as web-based psychotherapy treatments, are increasingly used to improve access to psychotherapy for a wider audience. Whereas different EMH interventions tend to be equally effective, the responsiveness to a specific treatment shows large individual differences. The personalization of treatments is seen as the major road for improvement.

eScience methods and tools

Because most EMH interventions use language for communication between counselors and clients, assessing language use provides an important avenue for opening the black box of what happens within therapy. EMH also makes data of the linguistic interactions between client and counselor available on an unprecedented large scale.

The objective of this interdisciplinary project is to use eScience methods and tools, in particular natural language processing, visualization and multivariate analysis methods, to analyze patterns in therapy-related textual features in e-mail correspondence between counselor and client.

Improving the effectiveness of EMH

By connecting patterns of known change indicators to therapy outcome, the question What Works When for Whom? can be answered, which will greatly improve the effectiveness of EMH. The core of the project concerns the development of integrated, modular software for the Dutch language, using data from six EMH-interventions with a total of 10.000 e-mails. These data are sufficiently large and varied to allow for computer-based modelling, and testing of use cases with varying complexity. At the end of the project, the step toward English language software will be made to increase the impact of the project.

Participating organisations

University of Twente
Netherlands eScience Center
Social Sciences & Humanities
Life Sciences



  • 1.
    What Works When for Whom? A methodological reflection on Therapeutic Change Process Review
    Published in 2021


Anneke Sools
Principle investigator
Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Bernard Veldkamp
Wouter Smink
Gerben Westerhof
Janneke van der Zwaan
Janneke van der Zwaan
eScience Research Engineer
Netherlands eScience Center
Erik Tjong Kim Sang
Erik Tjong Kim Sang
eScience Research Engineer
Netherlands eScience Center
Peter Kok
Peter Kok
eScience Research Engineer
Netherlands eScience Center
Ben de Vries
eScience Research Engineer
Netherlands eScience Center
Jisk Attema
Jisk Attema
Senior eScience Research Engineer
Netherlands eScience Center

Related projects

Navigating Stories in Times of Transition

The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Use Case

Updated 4 months ago

Emotion Recognition in Dementia

Advancing technology for multimodal analysis of emotion expression in everyday life

Updated 4 months ago

Related tools

Data Processing (What Works When for Whom)


Data processing scripts for the project What Works When for Whom

Updated 8 months ago



A flexible solution to build text mining workflows that allows you to quickly combine Natural Language Processing tools from different sources.

Updated 8 months ago
4 2

Orange Hackathon


Orange modules for text processing in the project What Works When for Whom

Updated 8 months ago



Create CWL workflows by writing a simple Python script.

Updated 8 months ago
1 7